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Soot formation in modern internal combustion engines

Soot formation and particulate matter (PM) has traditionally been associated with Diesel engines. Since the introduction of direct injection gasoline engines also suffer from this problem. Upcoming emission standards will be introducing more stringent PM regulations for gasoline engines.

Test bed particle analysers and modern portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) are designed to measure tailpipe PM emissions from internal combustion engines. To reduce soot and particulate formation at the source, i.e. in the cylinder, a detailed analysis of the mixture formation and combustion process is necessary.

LaVision EngineMaster inspex systems measure in-cylinder soot formation using endoscopic imaging systems, while laser induced incandescence (LII) systems are available for advanced soot analysis.

In-cylinder Soot Analysis
with Endoscopic Imaging Systems
  • direct visualization of soot formation
  • soot temperature and KL-value from soot pyrometry
  • spray visualization, geometry and wall interaction (e.g. piston wetting leading to soot formation)
  • combustion visualization and quantified flame propagation analysis
 
LaVision products for soot analysis:
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2D distribution of soot volume fraction in-cylinder measured with LII
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Soot temperature and KL-value from soot pyrometry analysis using an endoscopic imaging system
 
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Soot formation mechanisms in the gasoline engine.

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